English 10: Writing Portfolio

 

Catholic Memorial High School

 

2007-2008

   
   
   
   
   
Research  
   
Creative Writing  
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
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  "Democracy", although a very old word, is fairly new to the English language. It is of the
Greek etymology and has been used in the English usage since 1531 by John Heywood. Although this is
the earliest English usage if the word, it has been used for thousands of years beginning in ancient
Greece. It was not until the Renaissance that the word was taken directly from the Greeks. Basically
the word "Democarcy" shows us how young the English language actually is compared to
others and is still changing with the times as well as still adding many new words from thousands of
years ago and using them as our own as recently as a few hundred years ago.

Many know the word "Democarcy" as a form of government. In fact when five people were
surveyed about the word all described the word in a definition and in a sentence as a form of
government. However, only 20 percent of the people knew that the word was actually developed as a
Greek government, while the other 80 percent simply referred to the word as a U.S. form of
government. The only one to realize the word came from the Greeks was Brandon who said,
"Democracy is a government developed by the Greeks which is now used as an American
government." Most of the people surveyed also knew that the government democracy was one run by
the people. However, there was one person who did not know this information. When Ariel was asked
about the word she said,"Democracy is the government we use in the United States" and when
asked to use it in a sentence she said, "I am really glad we use democracy as our type of
government." Even in the Oxford English Dictionary there is only one usage in which the word is
not used in the sense of government but as a political party.

In the Oxford English Dictionary three out of four definitions of the word "Democracy" as
a government run by the people. However, in the fourth definition it is used slightly different.
"Democracy" is used in the sense of American Politics. Examples include: "The
principle of the Democratic Party..." as well as ""The members of the Democratic
Party collectively...." This proves that just as in a simple survey, the Oxford English
Dictionary also uses the word "Democracy" as a government by the people and not too much
else. I feel this is mainly true because of the people first using the word were generals in the
army or into government and politics.

The word "Democracy began in the early 300's B.C. and got off to a great start when the
word was first used by Aristotle. It was not for a long time when the word was brought into the
English language when used by John Heywood in 1531. The writing was in Government I ii. Other
showings of the word include Lord Byron's Diary May (Ravenna) in 1821, John
Milton's Paradise Regain'd in 1671, and John Stuart on January 21st, 1841. These
were the literary authors who set the base for how the word "Democracy would be used until the
present time and who knows how much longer?

"Democracy is a word that has been used for thousands of years. Whether it was in ancient
Greece or modern politics, "Democracy" has set the trends of time and showed us that some
words stay the same even over thousands of years or can change in just a few hundred years. The word
"Democracy is much like the English language itself as it has not been around very long
compared to other languages as "Democracy" has not compared to other words. However, both
have roots that date back to thousands of years ago and show that just as the word "Democracy
has lasted so long, so shall the English language.
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   

The word “bowling” is thought of usually as a relatively new word as the sport itself is just
starting to become a developing sport here in America, when in fact it has been around longer than
America itself. It was first used as early as 1440 meaning round and wooden object. The origin of
this word came right from the British as the word “bowling is derived from the Middle English
“boules.” Although lawn bowling is a sport more popular for the “Brits” bowling was not only a major
sport but a very popular one in early times. To many this may seem like a sport in which all
interest was lost in. However to me this reveals that America is a country that has relied greatly
on England in the past and that gave so much as they were an empire. This shows that The British
Isles are becoming less independent and less of an empire and are beginning to become just one of
the others as they are not bringing anything new to the table as they used to as an empire. A sport
such as “bowling” may seem like a very small thing but the sport and the word can reveal a lot about
an entire nation and even an entire empire.


Bowling in Britain may often be referred to as a pitcher in cricket. However, many may not
know that as the official website of the International Bowling Museum and Hall of Fame states the
first indoor bowling lane was actually erected in London in 1455 after years of lawn bowls in the
outdoors. It also states that even in the early 1900’s people were interested in the sport as a
British man, Sir Flinders Petrie, discovered a collection of objects in a child's grave in
Egypt that appeared to him to be used for a form of bowling. Also, there is evidence that a form of
bowling was played in England in 1366, when King Edward III allegedly outlawed it to keep his troops
focused on archery practice. England although introduced the sport to many have not been doing much
bowling themselves ever since developing and etiquette. The etiquette is actually quite simple as
rules really only include being ready to bowl when it is your turn and being considerate of others
bowling. Thos e in which perfected the sport and did these small things are often remembered in the
minds and hearts of many.


Although many seem to be losing interest over bowling in the past hundred years, there are
still many that not only enjoy playing the game but have come to perfect it. Both amateur and
professional bowlers are known for bowling a perfect score which is 300. One of these British
bowlers, Paul Moor actually bowled 24 perfect games in his career. Although you may think a
professional could only do this, there are also amateurs that do it, such as Ste Miller of the
England Junior bowling team. Although these bowlers work very hard to perfect their game many find
bowling as a very relaxing game and one that can keep them laughing. In fact some professional
bowlers joke about the game. “I let my lads off training on Friday and took them ten-pin bowling
instead because they were a bit tense. It turned out to be pure genius!” is a quote from Ian
Holloway. It's not as if they know what I am bowling, it's almost as if they don't
really seem to care what I am bowling.” is a quote from Stuart MacGill. “England are going to attack
by bowling a foot outside off stump” is a final quote from Allan Donald. These quotes signify that
this is most defiantly a sport of fun and games that all can have fun with even those from England.

Although having a loss of interest the BBC news online seems to have no problem keeping up
with the sport as it changes. In fact the past two years it has had articles about the newest match
results played in alleys of England. Rick Lovell gave the results of the matches by starting off
saying, “This is the report of the latest matches in the Guernsey ten pin bowling leagues as of
January 14 2008.” However there were no showings of anything before this. Also there are articles of
major events and arguments such as in 2004 when the controversy of left handed bowlers having an
advantage came up. Brady Haran said, “It is over what can be done to stop the dominance of
left-handed bowlers. The problem relates to oil, which coats the first two-thirds of a typical
bowling lane.” It’s tough for writers to do articles on such a slow moving sport in England. These
writers do however find away as there is still a spark of hope in the fact that bowling can someday
make a comeback and have the popularity that it once did in days past. All players and many
reporters hope to get the sport back to the level it was at in the 16 and 17 hundreds and hope that
people can someday understand that it is not a leisure but a sport as amateurs in junior leagues
hope to move the sport into the commonwealth and maybe even the Olympics as the BBC also states in
an article. Also the fact that there is very little use of the sport in British literature, or any
use of arts does not help the cause.


Although there is very little reference to bowling in British literature, there are some
instances in which it is shown. For example in modern music of the UK there is a music group called
Half Man Half Biscuit who uses several lines singing “They go ten pin bowling after dinner.” There
are also a few movies in which bowling exists. There is “Blackball” which is more of a lawn bowling
movie but the reference is still there. Also there is “A League of Ordinary Gentlemen” in which a
woman’s power involves a bowling ball. Although there only a few instances in which artist can use
bowling, I feel that’s its future is still in good hands based upon its own past and how strong it
once was in England and the English Empire.


In the past bowling has been a major sport in the England and in the English Empire. The
people may have lost touch with the sport, they cannot lose touch with their past. In my opinion the
sport is already beginning its transportation into a popular sport again. When a nation builds the
first indoor bowling lane, it is very hard for them to lose touch with that sport. Those who
participate in the sport and those who wrote about it have the power to make it into a great past
time which I feel that they will do and the future of bowling will be bright in England.

   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
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Since the beginning of time British Literature has always had its differences from any other
world literature. British Literature focuses on things that are unique to which the devices in which
it uses. Whether it is poetry, prose, or even drama, the varieties in which they can be written are
clearly revealed and also can be revealed through various authors. Various authors have their very
own, unique way of revealing their story with five specific devices. The devices these authors use
include settings, theme, resolutions, gender, and form. All nationalities focus on these devices;
however British authors do it in such a way that is special to their own literature. To prove this a
party has been thrown in which thirteen authors and critics have been invited to my home off the
coast of Boston and these devices will all be discussed to a degree in which everyone will
understand the variety in which British Literature includes.

Isolation is a major them throughout British Literature and can be seen in some of the greatest
novels ever written. Mary Shelley used isolation when she was only 19 years old and she used it to
perfection in her novel “Frankenstein”. Mary Shelley did not only use this on one account but on
both the monster and Dr. Frankenstein. Frankenstein often found himself alone as his family and
friends were dying and he felt as if it was his own fault. Also even when the monster was helping
out a family, he felt alone as he could not show himself and when he did he was punished for it.
Another author to use isolation as a major theme was George Orwell in his novel “1984”. In “1984”
the government forces its people to live alone with no one to love and only its neighbors to which
they still can’t be very close with. Isolation is how the people can be kept to themselves and is
exactly what the government does to them. Also in Master Anonymous’ “Sir Gawain and the Green
Knight” there is a sense of isolation in the lying as if he is alone. The knight lives his life
through lies and deceitfulness which means he can only rely on himself. This leads to isolation up
until the Green Knight teaches him the lesson needed. Whatever the reason this proves that isolation
is a major theme throughout British Literature.

Time plays a major role throughout the setting of any great novel, especially one written in
British Literature. There is however grave differences between Mary Shelley and George Orwell. In
George Orwell’s “1984” time plays a major role in the story. The time of year is important as
Winston Smith thinks, “He did not know for sure that it was 1984 but he was fairly sure.” Also the
clock striking 13 showed that time was going to play a major role throughout the setting. Also, by
not showing time at all in Mary Shelley’s “Frankenstein”, in a way it showed that time was not
important to her but it left us thing of time. The questions running through our minds may be how
long it took to travel to and from the Alps and how long the monster has been alive to learn
language. With these questions constantly running through our minds it shows that time can be a
major setting without even being mentioned within a novel. Whether it was important or not to the
author time will always play a role within British Literature.

In early times women were not of the highest ranks in most communities to say the least,
however in British Literature it is the complete opposite. William Shakespeare may have been the
most notorious to do this as in all of his writings a women plays a role. Shakespeare throughout his
writings has managed to make women the center of his novel or poem. For example in Shakespeare’s
“Macbeth” Lady Macbeth says, “Take the milk from my breast and make me a man” as she is taking
control in the situation of which Macbeth is not doing what she would like. She is the one taking
control which shows that women not only were seen in British Literature but played a major role.
Doris Lessing is also a great author who has used women in her writing and has shown how strong she
is and women she writes about. Lessing writes in “The Golden Notebook”, “They (men) still describe
us (women) in terms of relations with man even the best of them (women).” This just shows how strong
and independent women in Great Britain and British Literature can and will be. There are also strong
women that play off of each other’s good works. When Virginia Woolf began writing she not only took
in mind but acknowledged Jane Austen as a female author who as the influence to why she began to
write as and for females. Again this shows the strength as well as the influence that women authors
can have with their works as well as men authors writing about females.

One word dialogue in British Literature is seen and shown as a major form of writing as many
of the greats have used. Houseman had lines in which she wrote like, “I will come” to end her
stories. Also Shakespeare is known for doing this throughout his plays as a great playwright. In
William Wordsworth’s 800 page “Prelude”, there are too many times to count in which he refers to the
one word dialogue. Again in many of Jane Austen’s feminist writings she uses one word dialogue to
connect one woman to another. This just shows that even the greatest authors sometimes find places
in which the need to use short fragments of sentences and can become known for using short and
concise form in their major works.

Chaucer, Master Anonymous, Mallory, and Woolf all use the same type of resolution in their
great works, and that is the fact that they have to leave you with a message. The message they leave
us can compare to Aesop’s fables as it seems that every time someone reads a piece of their works
that they are being left with a moral of the story or a lesson as to how to live one’s life. In
Master Anonymous’ “Sir Gawain and the Green Knight” the lesson is to keep from lying. In Chaucer’s
stories there are too many messages to name as in every story there is a message as well as with Sir
Thomas Mallory and Virginia Woolf. This includes “The Wife’s Baths Tale” as well as the story with
the fox and the chicken who could sing so well. It seems here that the British cannot go without
leaving a message in their resolution and that they must always leave us with a moral in which to
abide.

There really is not much to comparison when bringing World Literature and British Literature
together to compare. The ideas British authors put into British Literature are unique to only Great
Britain and its former empire. Even when using the same devices other parts of the world cannot
overcome the ideas brought by the British. After examining the two types of literature, British have
been found to be unique and superior to that of the world.