English 10: Writing Portfolio

 

Catholic Memorial High School

 

2007-2008

   
   
   
   
   
Research  
   
Creative Writing  
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
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  When some people buy new clothes they like to find out where the wares they wear come from. Where
does “where” come from? Now, there are many different pronunciations for this word. Some examples of
these variations are “where”, “ware”, and “wear”. Now, I will not be dealing with the verb or the
noun so this word will date back a little farther. Some of the old spellings for this word that date
back to the times of the Old English are “hwaer”, “hwer”, “hwar”, and “huer”. Another word that
formed off of this word was “there” with a different form in the Old English which was “thara”.
Over the years in the English history, the word did not have the biggest impacts on life, but it did
help us to refer to different places and if we needed to go somewhere it would help us to
communicate for direction. The earliest findings of this word were in Vespasian Psalter in 825 where
it quotes, “Hwer is god {edh}in?”

When asked in a survey of what comes to mind when first asked this word, 40% of the4 respondents
replied with the word “space”. When asked, Nick Clements said “place” and for a sentence he said,
“There is no other place where my notebook could be.” Next Pat Smith's first response was
“location” and for a sentence he replied with “There are many place where you can shop at.” The
third participant responded with “area” and “I don't know where to go.” the final two replied
with “place” and both with questions. Stephen said, “Where is my car?” Then finally Alex said, Where
is my phone?” Clearly the word “where can have several different meanings for different people, but
it all amounts to the same thing consisting of a certain place or position, However, the word can
mean the same thing for some people seeing here as how 40% of the respondents replied with “place”.


Looking through the London Times and The Boston Globe, it is used both referring to a certain place
or area. In an article by Hiawatha Bray, from the Globe Staff, called The Big Game, which concerned
the Xbox 360 video game “Halo 3”, she interviewed Matt Rosof an analyst at directions for Microsoft
who said, “Where I think it hurts Xbox...” Here “where” is referring to what certain area Xbox is
being hurt by money. Also when asking my next door neighbor, Mary, who has come up learning Gaelic
since her childhood in Ireland has had no problem learning the word when she studied English in
school. As Mary said, when she was growing up learning English , it was not difficult for her to
become accustomed to this word. So, while being essential to the English language, this word,
apparently is not difficult for foreigners to learn.

The main roots of this word came form the Old English language and caught on to modern English, but
this word was also used in the Irish language and was then used commonly in America because of a
huge number immigrants that came from Ireland. The first definition of the word form the OED, which
we use today is, “In or at what place or region”. All of the remaining definitions found on record
from the people at the OED are mainly the same involving words such as place, situation or point
which revolve around the general idea of the first definition. I compared this to The American
Heritage Dictionary which holds the definition, “In or at what place or position”. Another big part
of some definitions include this word being involved in questions, which are used to suggest, imply
or indicate certain topics. The earliest form that was used for this word was “hwaer”, then it was
“hwer”, “hwar”, and “huer”. After thousands of years we evolved this word into what it is today
which is “where”. Before this actual word was formed exactly this way, it was pronounced and spelled
in England “whither”. This way of saying was used formerly and frequently when it was around. Now
that form has not died out completely because it is sometimes used by people, but rarely you hear of
it. Some other compound forms of this word came into use to be combined such as, “wherever”,
“whereso”, “wheresome”, and “wheresomever”.

This word has been found by the Oxford English Dictionary crew in some books by some famous writers
such as Sir Thomas Malory's translation of King Arthur in 1470-1480 where it used in context,
“Where are al my noble knyghtes becomen?” Another example is of Shakespeare's A Midsummer
Night's Dream in 1590, “Where shall we go?” A third example is of Shakespeare's Richard
III in 1594, “He is heauen, where thou shalt never come.” There was another story written from
Shakespeare in 1601 which was Julius Caesar which read, “I haue heard, Where many of the best
respect in Rome.” Finally another account in which there is a famous writer involved in Charles
Dickens' Sketches By Boz in 1835 in which it reads, “Where on earth the husband came from.”
This here clearly proves that this word is important and popular in the English language, being
noted in some famous writings such as King Arthur, Julius Caesar, and Richard III.

The word “where” has left its mark in the English language, having come from a very early time
period of 825 with the first form of “hwer”. As you can see over many, many centuries, there have
been many different forms of this word, the first being “hwer” to what it is today being “where”.
Although the word “where” has had many different forms in its time, the definition unfortunately has
not changed much at all with no dead or obsolete definitions. There have been various definitions,
which are all similar and there are even some famous writers, which have used it throughout the
world. This just goes to show that no matter where something comes from, it'll always change in
certain ways. In my opinion, this word will remain in the world of language due to its importance
in our everyday communication. As for the English language, I believe that it will stay in tact for
many, many years to come. The way I see it, we would need to be conquered, along with all the other
English speaking countries, which would take a lot before this language is dead. But if this were to
happen, I would like to know where those people came from.
   
   
   
   
   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Dear Mr. Chaucer,

We are deeply sorry to inform you that we will no longer be using your works of,

The Canterbury Tales. Although all us here at Prentice Hall enjoy your masterpiece,

we feel that it may have been outdone by other writers. Like I said, we here at

Prentice Hall love your work. However, we have found that it is not suited for students

around the country, due to its lack of quality compared to more modern writers, which we

here have found over the recent years. We have come to this decision after much dispute

and argument. Of course, like all people you must be wondering what we based our

decision off of. First of all we feel that your iambic pentameter is inconsistent with the

syllables, we have also noticed that there is too much offense being taken from sexism in

your tales such as “The Miller’s Tale,” and finally there is too much stress on deceit in

the “Pardoner’s Tale.” We, in later years have seen pieces of literature, which would

better fit our selection.


When I talk of inconsistent iambic pentameter, I mean of line 10 from the

“Wife of Bath’s Tale,” which quotes, “Of limiters and other holy friars.” Line 61 from

the Prologue read, “For all along the Mediterranean coast.” With, “Preadventure, such

being the statue then;” in the last line of the left column of the “Wife of Bath’s Tale.”

Now you can turn back 42 lines to the 410th line where it reads, “He sent his prisoners

home; they walked the plank.” There are eleven syllables here and close to no long


accented even numbered syllables. Now I may be going out on a limb here Geoffrey, but

I think you could have taken an extra minute for some of these lines to find better words

to only fit ten syllables and have more long accented even numbered syllables. Just so

you don’t think that I’m crazy Mr. Chaucer, I references to people who concur with my

thoughts such as William E. Rogers, who wrote a review titled, Upon The Ways: The

Structure of “The Canterbury Tales.”


Let’s get off of that for now and let’s talk of the social problem. There does not

seem to be a place for your work in our textbook due to the story you call, “The Miller’s

Tale.” Many people including me were appalled and strikingly offended at the sexual

activity that was going on in this story. We were hoping to use this for a children’s story

but this does not seem to be the way to go. However, this one in particular, of all the

Tales was the most disturbing, and I think you and I both know why. Therefore we

cannot continue to publish your work for the obvious reasons that I just stated. In fact

this problem was so bad that that we did not allow the children to encounter the

“Canterbury Tales” and made sure that it was removed from their study and their yearly

work. In my opinion this Tale turned out to have no meaning at all whatsoever. One of

the main pieces of material, which struck me the most was lines 160-161 in which I

quote, “I done well say, if she had been a mouse, And he a cat, he would have mauled her

some.” This just presents too much inappropriate text for teens at their age, when most of

them are too immature for this to go unnoticed. We just feel that this was one of the main

lines which brought upon this humiliation in which it talks of how a man would have

performed his sexual desires on a woman. I am also backed on this by Paul Hogarth, who

wrote in his article, “The Miller’s Tale lost much of Chaucer’s coarse humor and, like

most television drama, proved to be amiably pointless.” This went along with my opinion

of this story having no meaning. However, Jean E. Jost agrees with the offensive side of

the story when she wrote, “Chaucer’s Parlement of Foules as a Valentine Fable: The

Subversive Poetics of Feminine Desire.” This was not directly pointed at The Canterbury

Tales, but she did mention this work of his and how this is consistent throughout other

stories. Another reference is Karl P. Wentersdorf, who wrote of Geoffrey’s “anti-

feminist” comments in “Chaucer’s Worthless Butterfly.”


The final reason for our rejection is that we believe that you used too many

matters of deceit in your stories such as the “Pardoner’s Tale.” An example would be the

poor old man in the “Pardoner’s Tale” who tells the men where “Death” is when it is

really a fortune, which leads the men to greed and killing each other. I would have liked

to had seen him as a more important character in this story, because in my eyes he was

pretty important by telling them where “Death” was. There is nothing to quote for this

reason seeing as how these actions speak louder than words. What would have been

better is if he came back to stop, or attempt to stop the dispute between the men and show

how their greed would eventually lead to death. But overall we don’t feel that this type

of story should be presented to children. For example, we don’t want some kid to find a

dollar on the ground and have his friend come in to hurt the first kid for it. I also feel that

this would have been more beneficial so as to stop the deceit and violence for a more

happy story.



We are sorry to say that this has been a long road together in which we must

part. We do hope to use some of your work such as “The House of Fame,” which seems

to be a very promising poem of yours which we wish to look into for our up and coming

college text. We suppose it may be possible to include your “Canterbury Tales” in this

text as well where the students are much older and much more mature. However we are

coming out with a new edition for this book in a few months in which we hope to add

your “Troilus and Criseyde” along with “Book of the Duchess.” These seem like two

great pieces of your work, which would be more appropriate and would fit better for this

grade level. As you can see we hope to use the products of your master skill soon. And

these seem like some possible candidates, which we would like to add to our collection.

Once again, no hard feelings.




Hoping you are well,



John Cooper – CEO of Prentice Hall

   
   
   
   
   
   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rugby can be traced as far back as early football history. According to the

OED, it was first entered into an encyclopedia in 1864. The official Rugby Football

League Website states that it is a game played with 13 men on each side in the

professional league and 15 each side for the amateur league. This is played over a series

of two 40 minute periods. Rugby is played in over thirty countries. The most popular is

northern England along with Australia, France, and New Zealand. The strongest of the

sport between these three countries is Australia. To prove this, the Rugby Football

History Website states that Australia has won every World Cup since 1975. It also shows

that for England, the main origins of it in its country were, Yorkshire, Lancashire and

Cumberland. The professional rugby “league” is called Rugby League. Here we also

learn that this is played as both a professional and amateur sport (Rugby Union) in

Australia, France, South Africa, Great Britain, and New Zealand. The popularity of this

sport is clearly high seeing as how it has grown from Europe to other continents around

the world along with including amateur and women leagues.

Of course, with a sport as old as this, there are bound to be some interesting

stories or facts that have happened in the past. One of the things that I find interesting is

that there is an independent women’s league for rugby. Not only that, but it has made its

way from a World Cup in England and become teams and tournaments in our very own

colleges. We notice in the Encyclopedia Britannica that The Rugby Championship is

held every four years and the very first one was held in 1991 and won by the United

States. According to the National Women’s Rugby League online, the first two

tournaments held in 1991 and 1994 were not sanctioned by the International Rugby

Board(IRB). However, the 1998 World Cup was played in the Netherlands and this time

was backed by the IRB. The very first tournament was held in New Zealand in 1990.

Though it was not called the World Cup, it was referred to as the Rugger Fest or World

Rugby Festival for Women. As you can see this is one very interesting matter concerning

Rugby as how it has created a women’s league before American football has.

Just as our sports do here, rugby has its own page in The Sun and

The London Times. Once again, we see how the actions going on in sports in our

country have influenced other country’s behavior in sports, both good and bad. Here,

unfortunately, we have influenced other countries the wrong way. And just like us, they

do not trust all of their players not to cheat. One of the main rugby players is Richie

Barnett. In an article written on the Times website called, “The drugs don’t work, they

just make it worse,” it says, “They must look hard at the case of former Warrington wing

Richie Barnett…” The incident that they are discussing here is about Richie Barnett who

was a rugby player, playing for the Warrington Wolves and Hull FC, and was banned for

2 years after testing positive on for a “banned substance” during a Super League match

last season. This sport takes full action and responsibility by taking over 400 dope tests

during the year and here it seems to have paid off.

Barnett is not the only trouble-maker in the Rugby League. As reported in

the article, “Threat of suspension for Trent Barrett and Richard Mathers,” by

The London Times, it talks of the two Wigan Warriors who went before the

disciplinary committee on March 11, for allegedly performing dangerous tackles

in their game a few days before. The article goes on to explain what a tumultuous

commotion it brought about in saying, “In addition to Mathers's red card, the game

at Warrington was interrupted by 28 penalties given by Steve Ganson, the referee.”

This shows how being a rough, contact sport, things can get out of hand and start

retaliations, leading to penalties, ending up with suspensions as seen here.

There are always some superstars of sports that make or break their teams. One

example of a player that makes his team is Danny Cipriani of the London Wasps Rugby

Union team. As seen on the Wasps Official Website, Danny Cipriani played for the

London U19 World Cup but couldn’t finish the tournament because of an unfortunate

head injury. After recovering, he came back and played for the London U21 team. He

spent the 2007 summer in a training camp and barely missed out on being selected for the

2007 World Cup. But recently, Cipriani seems to be setting a spark for the British team

as said in the article of The London Times, “Danny Cipriani provides England with hope

after shining on Twickenham stage.” Here it quotes, “There was a sense, however, that

the arrival of Danny Cipriani did signal the start of something special, a potentially

seismic shift in the English psyche.” As it seems, England has a shot to rise fast because

of this young, talented athlete.

There have been many references to rugby in literature such as in songs like the

“Irish National Anthem,” “There is an Isle,” and “The Fields of Athenry.” These songs

originated in Ireland. According to the OED, the first use of this word in literature was in

1897. It was used in the book Typewriter Girl, by Olive Pratt Rayner. The context of

this history was in the third chapter, page 31, where it quotes, “Their discourse…circled

chiefly around the noble quadruped, with divergences on Rugby and Association

Football.” As you can see this diverse sport has made its way through literature not just in

one country of Ireland but also into England. So, just as it is popularly played in Ireland

and England, it is also popularly written about in songs, books, and articles in the news.

It is apparent that this game has gone all across the world from the British Isles of

Ireland, Wales, and England, where it originated, to France, New Zealand and now even

to the United States. There is no stopping the popularity of this sport or its spread around

the world. My guess is that it will become a professional sport in the U.S. within 20

years, reach more of a worldwide appeal and even make it into the Olympic games. I just

hope for the sport’s sake that here, in the U.S., when I go up to Nick and ask him what

Rugby is, I won’t get the response I did get which was, “It’s a sport like football where

you kick it and run.” I would like to hear, “It is a full contact sport played using a prolate

spheroid-shape ball between two teams of thirteen men on a rectangular field.” This is

what rugby has come to over 350 years.

   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


We here today have some fantastic authors with many similarities among them.
The earliest and one of the most renowned of poets is from William Shakespeare, born in
1564, to the present Doris Lessing today. In between are some other great writers such as
J.K. Rowling, John Milton, Charles Dickens, John Donne, and Daniel Defoe. We’ll also
Hear of some works from Thomas Gray, Robert Herrick, Jane Austen, Virginia Woolf, George Orwell, and
A.E. Housman. All of these writers have demonstrated a great presentation of some sort of
setting, theme, gender, form, and resolutions, to their pieces of writing. These are all very
important themes to the writing of the masterpieces, which they have presented. This is just a
taste of what we see from these British authors. These authors come from a diversity of three main
styles, these being prose, such as Charles Dickens and J.K. Rowling, drama such as William
Shakespeare, and poetry such as John Donne. Compared to American, other European and African
literature, England depends mostly on these 5 devices used by all writers. These consist of gender,
format, resolution, setting, and theme. One broad topic here is theme, which can consist of tragic,
foreshadowing, mysterious or dramatic literature. British poetry has been number one compared to
drama and prose since the early times.

One of the main topics used in literature is the importance and influence that
females have on some authors’ works. Some females can be important in a bad way like Lady Macbeth
by bringing the downfall of her husband, or the importance of how females stop evil in the character
of Hermoine. John Donne, J.K Rowling, Charles Dickens, William Shakespeare, Doris Lessing, Virginia
Woolf, Robert Herrick, and Jane Austen, all show a similar, non-prejudice and important inclusion
towards either female or male characters in their books. We see by J.K. Rowling’s Harry Potter
novels that one of the three main, most “included” characters is a female, that being Hermoine
Granger, with her. Just as we see in her fifth novel, that Harry is thinking of his two best
friends, during summer holiday, “And what were Ron and Hermoine busy with? Why wasn’t he, Harry,
busy?” (8) Harry here feels that he needs his two best partners, one being a girl, at his side. In
Charles Dickens’ story, Hard Times, there is no discrimination from women when he includes a very
funny character in Sissy Jupe, when she tells Gradgrind that she reads stories of, “the Fairies,
sir, and the Dwarf, and the Hunch-back, and the Genies” (45). With these, she is taught only truth
and no “fairy” content included. And just the same, Jane Austen shows no bias when one of her books
is even named Emma where the feminine prejudice does not exist and where it says, “…under her
influence the house becomes good as it had always been beautiful” (108). Doris Lessing shows this
view on gender in The Diaries of Jane Somers, when showing her feeling to how age is influenced by
many factors such as one being gender, “… real women form relationships across generations and
strengthen already existing intergenerational relationships.” In a review by Christina Godsnell, she
comments on Doris Lessing’s The Diaries of Jane Somers, she says, “In 640 pages of well-written
prose, Doris Lessing tries to come to terms with all that she has or hasn’t created in life.”


Mainly this is emphasizing how the book entails part of the author’s life in it. When Lady Macbeth
says, “…unsex me here,” (Act I scene v) it portrays how Shakespeare himself views the importance of
female characters in his plays, like here, Lady Macbeth trying to be given the strength of a man to
kill the King Duncan. In Virginia Woolf’s Orlando, it reads, “the point of the book seems to be that
there is more than one person in each body, that each individual has, at least potentially, many
selves” (491). This emphasizes that Woolf gives equality to both woman and man, not just the
latter. Then we notice Robert Herrick expressing this style in, To the Virgins, to make much of
Time, “For having lost but once your prime/You may for ever tarry.” (Lines 15-16) Herrick emphasizes
how he holds women to such a high point by writing a poem like this to them and of expressing their
“prime,” for how they are noticed and respected. Finally, we have John Donne’s “Song” where it
quotes, Sweetest love I do not go/ For weariness of thee.”(1-2) Clearly, this here is being recited
or written to a female who this man is in love with and shows the level of passion that he has for
her, when interpreted correctly. As heard here there are many important uses of female characters
throughout history of literature, whether used for good or evil.


The next interesting device to look at among these famous authors is form. Such authors who all
wrote in a pentameter form of meter and rhyme scheme are, Thomas Gray, Robert Herrick, William
Shakespeare, and John Milton. These authors have at least one piece of work writing in some iambic
pentameter with their own different styles of stanza and rhyme, but right now we are only looking at
their wonderful works of penatmeter . For example, in John Milton’s Sonnet XIX, his first stanza
is, “When I consider how my light is spent/Ere half my days, in this dark world and wide/And that
one talent which is death to hide/Lodged with me useless, though my soul more bent.” (Lines 1-4)
Here, Milton is writing in an iambic pentameter quatrain with an “ABBA” rhyme scheme. Another form
is Robert Herrick’s quatrain and pentameter line “The glorious lamp of heaven, the sun” (Line 5). We
have another piece from Thomas Gray’s Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard, “The curfew tolls the
knell of parting day, The lowing herd winds slowly o’er the lea, The plowman homeward plods his
weary way, And leaves the world to darkness and to me” (Lines 1-4). We see all iambic pentameter
with an “ABAB” rhyme. Finally William Shakespeare writes his sonnets in 14 iambic pentameter lines
with “ABAB” rhyme and an rhyming couplet at the end. One of Shakespeare’s most famous sonnets,
Sonnet 116, quotes, “Which alters when alteration finds, Or bends with remover to remove” (Lines
3-4). In a review written by Tim Casey, he says :


“Many of us learnt that a Shakespearean sonnet has 14 lines made up of three quatrains and a
couplet… and that each line is made up of iambic pentameters…This nugget of rhythmic information
would have raised questions in our inquiring minds: surely ‘Shall I compare thee to a summer's
day?’”


Many poets from past to present have written in perfect iambic pentameter lines and very many
interesting flows to how they come out when recited.


Another factor which we see as similar among our authors is that there is a very
gloomy setting among some of their works, with much reference to death,gravegards, and impoverished
areas. For example we have here David Copperfield by Charles Dickens and in the first chapter we
see how he refers to his father in his grave and mention of “spooky” things such as, “…that I was
privileged to see ghosts and spirits” (1). Here, he is recalling the night he was born, at which
time his father had already passed. In A.E. Housman’s There pass the careless people,it reads,
“There flowers no balm to sain him/That's lost for everlasting/The heart out of his breast”
(21). This shouts how people in graves are ignored and forgotten by people above. This seems like
the same type of thinking in Thomas Gray’s, Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard, “Yet even these
bones from insult to protect/Some frail memorial still erected nigh/With uncouth rhymes and
shapeless sculpture decked/Implores the passing tribute of a sigh” (77-80). George Orwell comes in
later on with his book 1984, with the whole theme of communism and being ruled by the government and
people basically enslaved, along with leaving that glum picture in your mind. It is seen,
“Everything is state owned, everything is ersatz, and ‘victory’; victory coffee, victory gin, even
the apartment block is called Victory Mansions” (56). This means that everything is the same for
everyone, even how little money everyone has. Then a well-known critic by the name of Henry de
Villose who quotes from a criticism on 1984, where he says, “The world of 1984 is divided into three
chronically embattled super-states, Oceania, Eurasia, Eastasia. The philosophies prevailing in
them, though different in name, are actually barely distinguishable at all.” Although, it seems as
though Orwell wants this mysterious and curious sensation about these countries so as to leave the
reader wondering how these places actually function. Next on our list would be Daniel Defoe’s
Journal of the Plague Year, with the entailing of the Black Death and all of the emphasis on how
many people died and it being so frequent that people didn’t need to double take at a wagon of
bodies going by. A scene of this is here is seen, “…and a woman gave three frightful screeches, and
then cried, ‘Oh! Death, death, death!’ in a most inimitable tone, and which struck me with horror,
and a chilness in my very blood” (77). This expresses what a shocking ordeal this must have been.
And these altogether express how some authors have minds twisted enough to make their settings even
scarier than imaginable.

When looking very carefully at these works, you also notice theme and
draconian notion of evil within their masterpieces which get you so mad at the “bad
guy” for being there . As an example, we’ll start off with J.K. Rowling in her Harry
Potter series, having Lord Voldemort and the Death Eaters as the evil in her books. An
example of this is in Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, when Harry is asked who
would be attacking him, he replied, “‘Hmm, let’s think…’ said Harry in a mock
thoughtful voice, ‘maybe Lord Voldemort?’” (244). After he had said this, the class
gasped and it proves how evil this person is to make an entire class of kids gasp at
someone’s name. John Milton also shows evil, and how much more evil can you get than
Satan, in Paradise Lost, “And high permission of all-ruling Heaven/Left him at large
with his own dark designs” (212-213). Once again, communism reeks evil and
controversy throughout Orwell’s 1984, with the big theme and memorable sentence of
how there’s nowhere to hide with, “Big Brother is watching you” (14). One of the most
evil female characters comes about in Lady Macbeth from Shakespeare’s Macbeth seen,
“Why did you bring these daggers from their place? They must lie there: go carry them,
and smear The sleepy grooms with blood.” (Act II scene ii) When she recites this line, I get a
shrill up my back from hearing such a horrific request.

There are three authors now who seem to have an ending that has a death, or bad endings, which
leads you into something new and awaiting. These two authors would be Doris Lessing, John Donne,
and Daniel Defoe. Daniel Defoe’s entire story of, Journal of the Plague Year suggests the view of
death and sadness. He closes this with, “I can go no farther here. I should be counted censorious,
and perhaps unjust, into the unpleasing work of reflecting, whatever cause there was for it,”(253).
This was recorded on his last paragraph, which leaves us with a very unpleasant and pitiful feeling
for what imagining someone to have to go through the experiences presented. This gets you wanting
to know what happens after, how people were cured, and the things that you know he won’t tell you,
want you to know even more. Next is John Donne’s “Song,” with, “Are but turned aside to sleep/They
who one another keep/Alive, ne’r parted be.” Here we can see how the couple fears death and leaving
each other when here the man is telling the woman to imagine it as he is turning to the other side
in bed because he is with you but isn’t really talking to you. Then, we see Doris Lessing’s Golden
Notebook where it has, “the ending is a figure for death, then the refusal of endings is crudely
put, an affirmation of life” (221). Clearly stating here, we see the different ways that these
authors end their stories. One critic, Frank Kermode, quotes, “The circular structures I’ve traced
throughout the Children of Violence, The Golden Notebook, The Memoirs of a Survivor, and Shikasta
thwart endings and allow new beginnings.” These here are just a few of the authors that leave you
with a sad ending but lead it into a new beginning.

As you can see, there are many authors from the time of then with Shakespeare
to the time of now with J.K. Rowling and Doris Lessing, who have shown emphasis on
their own interpretation of each of the five devices in literature, those being theme,
resolution, form, gender, and setting. There are many variations, which include the ones
shown here such as female influence, death-like settings, an evil theme, iambic
pentameter form, and finally a sad and depressing, but expecting resolution.



Works Cited

Rowling, J.K. Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix. New York: Scholastic
Paperbacks, 2004.

Dickens, Charles. Hard Times. New York: Sterling Publishing, 2004.
--- David Copperfield. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 1907.

Austen, Jane. Emma. New York: Penguin Group, 2003.

Shakespeare, William. Macbeth. New York: Penguin Group, 2000.
---“Sonnet 116” Prentice Hall: British
Tradition. Eds. Kate Kinsella et. all.Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall 2002.

Woolf, Virginia. Orlando. New York: Penguin Group, 1942.

Herrick, Robert. “To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time.” Prentice Hall: British
Tradition. Eds. Kate Kinsella et. all.Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall 2002.

Milton, John. “Sonnet XIX.” Prentice Hall: British
Tradition. Eds. Kate Kinsella et. all.Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall 2002.
--- “Paradise Lost.” New York: Penguin Classics, 2003

Gray, Thomas. “Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard.” Prentice Hall: British Tradition. Eds. Kate
Kinsella et. all.Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall 2002.

Housman A.E. “There pass the careless people.” London, UK: Faber and Faber, 2002.

Orwell, George. 1984. New York: Signet Classics, 1961.

Defoe, Daniel. “Journal of the Plague Year.” Prentice Hall: British Tradition. Eds. Kate
Kinsella et. all.Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall 2002.

Lessing, Doris. The Golden Notebook. New York: Perennial Classics. 1999.

Donne, John. “Song.” Prentice Hall: British Tradition. Eds. Kate
Kinsella et. all.Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall 2002.

   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
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