English 10: Writing Portfolio


Catholic Memorial High School



Creative Writing  
   Even though there have been some bad moments throughout the development of the English
language, the first use of the word "bad" was not a bad moment at all. Today in the
twenty-first century, one normally thinks something has gone wrong when they hear the word
"bad"; but was this the same in the 13th century when the word first came about? Yes, the
word bad is almost seven hundred and fifty years old, but has been known by the same definition
throughout time. The word "bad," was one of those few old words that only altered
slightly, but stayed the same for almost seven hundred and fifty years. This extremely popular word
is a good example of how the development of a word over time reveals some of the greater trends in
the ever shifting English language. Throughout thousands of years of these slowly occurring changes,
the word "bad" became able to show how it has a history that powerfully replicates the way
the English language has developed over time.

I surveyed five individuals, remotely to see if there are any differences between the Oxford English
Dictionary, and the way people perceive this word's meaning. The first respondent in my survey
was my Mom. When I asked her to define the word, she said, "Something wrong either to do or
say." When I asked her to use it in a sentence, she responded, "I didn't want to be a
bad friend so I stated with Susie." Next I asked a younger respondent by the name of Kayla, who
is only ten years of age. "Not nice" was her definition of the word "bad" and
"You were being very bad today" was the sentence in which she used the term. Another
respondent immediately jumped to using the term in a positive way by putting the word in its slang
form. The slang form of this word can be made by attaching it to a profanity word. This is atypical
because as you can see most respondents I had asked, used the term in a very pessimistic way. Mike,
who was my third respondent, said "Bad can be a slang word to say something cool." When he
was asked to use it in a sentence he said, "Man, that thing you just did was really
bad-as_." As you can see, the word "bad" has mostly been rooted in a negative way,
but when used in a slang form, the word can sometimes be projected as something positive.

Not only did I survey English speaking individuals, but I also surveyed people who do not speak
English as their first language. Jane Koczen my grandmother on my father's side was born in
Poland and moved to the United States at about age 25. I asked her to define the word
"bad", and she said, "Something that is not right, or not good." I then asked
her to translate that into a sentence, in which she responded "When I went to the supermarket
today the traffic was really bad." I then asked my Grandfather on my mother's side who
originally lived in Italy. He moved to America at age 19 which is a little bit earlier than my
grandmother. When I asked him to define the word "bad" he said, "Something that is
wrong, or something that doesn't go your way." When I asked him to put it in a sentence he
replied "I tried writing a note but my handwriting was very bad." After I had my
grandparents define and use the word in a sentence, I asked them if they had any trouble learning
this word when they began speaking the English language. Both grandparents said the word
"bad" was one of the first and easiest of the English words for them to learn. Two totally
different people, from two totally different countries, had no trouble learning this word. This
alone tells us that the word bad is not only one of the most popular words in our language, but also
one of the easiest for foreigners to understand and remember.

According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word "bad" was first used at the end of
the thirteenth century. Some of the first ever recordings on paper of this word were in
Shakespearean plays. The very first definition of this word spelled (badde) was "Of defective
quality or worth, 'of no good’; below par, poor, worthless, 'wretched,'
'miserable'; that one does not thing much (or anything) of." This definition is one
of the very first recorded of the word written on paper in 1297 in R. Glouc. Page 108. "Wat is
vs. to lete is badde kyng Go us o liue as a schade as nys wor no thing." This was the very
first sentence that ever had the word "bad" used within its text. The second definition of
the word bad that came around in the late 1680's spelled (badd) was "Incorrect, faulty.
Bad shot: a wrong guess." This was found in 1688 in the London Gazette page 4 line 17. Last but
very far from least (spelled bad) was “lacking good or favorable qualities; unfortunate,
unfavorable’ that one does not like.” This was found in the “Gower’s Album chapter 12 line
thirty-six in the year 1940. As you can see, as history went on, the word’s meaning altered very
little if not at all, but the spelling of the word did. In 1389, a monk used the word with a
different spelling by dropping the “e” at the end of “badde.” This kept its form for about 300 years
until the time of Shakespeare’s play Julius Caesar in 1601 where he dropped the final “d” giving us
the words spelling we use to this day.

Considering the word “bad” has been used for over a period of seven-hundred and fifty years, and it
is one of the most popular words in the English language, you can make a safe guess that there have
been some famous authors using this word. One of the first famous authors to be recorded with the
use of this word was Williams Shakespeare. He used the word bad in his play Julius Caesar in the
year 1601. After Shakespeare, it was used by the famous author J. O’Keefe in 1798 in the book “Man
Milliner.” In this book, the word “bad” was used in the sentence “Why ma’am, I’m a boy! Frank: You
are a bad boy.” This sentence can be found in (Chapter six line twelve.) next after O’Keeffe, was a
famous author by the name of F. nightingale in the year 1861. She used this word in the sentence
“What would ever make you think that that was a bad thing?” (Chapter 11 page 145 line 23.) In all
three of these famous authors’ writings, the word “bad” was used in the same way. This example as
well as many others show how “bad” s such a popular word that will almost never change in meaning.

The word “bad” is such a popular word these days; you can look in any magazine, article, newspaper,
or novel and almost always find the word within the text. In 2004, one of Britain’s most famous
writers J.K. Rowling used the word “bad” in the first of her seven Harry potter novels. This can be
found several times through the book but specifically one example can be found (on page 145 line
23.) The word was used in the sentence, “Harry ran to the hut outside Hogwarts, afraid that anything
bad has happed to his dear friend Ron.” Another place I found this word would be in the U.S.A.
hockey magazine. In its 2006 issue on august 7th, they used the word “bad” on (page 21 line 13.) The
line stated, “If your skates are not sharp, your turning and edge work will be extremely bad.” Last
but far from least , the word “bad” was found in the Boston Globe newspaper (page 32 line 43) The
Bruins played and extremely good game, but had an extraordinarily bad hit on Bergeron leaving him
out for a wide period of time.” As you can see, in all the recent articles, in newspapers,
magazines, and novels, each author wrote using the word “bad” with the same meaning. This also shows
that the word “bad” does not vary, even when the sentence can vary a little, or to the highest

Over centuries this word has been changed in spelling as well as in meaning. As the English
language develops as a whole, along with the modern time, we tend to see words do this. Since the
meaning of the word “bad” has stayed relatively similar throughout the past seven-hundred fifty
years, I believe as time evolved, the word will remain the same. “Bad” is not a word of multiple
meanings, it is a word with a strong negative connotation, that only in rare occasions can be used
in a positive manner So looking into the future of this word, it will linger as the most popular
chosen word to use when something goes wrong, When the word beings to develop slang meanings, which
sometimes become used more than the original definition of the word, the slang term can become the
new actual definition. Because the slang version of the word “Bad” isn’t used very much, there is
an exceptionally strong chance that “bad” will maintain its negative definition throughout time.












Dear Scribe,
The new Prentice Hall Literature book is under editing, and major budget cuts have been made to
our program. Due to the monetary restrictions imposed upon us, an immensely difficult decision had
to be made. The Prentice Hall editing staff had come to a conclusion, that on behalf of the path we
would like the new edition to take, your work had to be omitted. Your skillful vocabulary of Old
English is much too tricky for the sophomore level. The story is just too hard for most sophomore
students to follow and comprehend. Secondly, there is a clear over obsession with death throughout
the story. Barley any important characters throughout Beowulf survive till the end of the epic.
Lastly, all the way through this story, there are conflicts between Christian and Pagan beliefs,
which also poses an issue. To make this clear, your work is not being removed because of the
quality of your work, it is just too violent, complex, and mixed on religion beliefs. So, on behalf
of myself, and the rest of the “Prentice Hall Literature, Timeless Voices, Timeless Themes”
editors, I am proud to advise you that we couldn’t possibly find your work “Beowulf” any more
brilliant, and will may be a new addition to a higher level edition of the Prentice Hall Literature

Many students in their sophomore year of high school have never been exposed to Old English. The
language is very complex to them, so even short readings may take them twice, or even three times as
long to comprehend. When this happens, the next day in class when teacher reviews the reading with
the students, more than half the class may have misinterpreted the events of the story. The tricky
writing style is just too advanced for this grade, and may need to be given to the junior, or senior
class to read such a brilliant piece of work. For example, on page one, the line “geofon ypum weol
wintrys wyimum git onwaetersaeht seofon niht swuncon; he pe aet sunde oferflat haefde mare maegen;
pa hine on morgen-tid on heapo-raemes holm up aetgaer.” is not the easiest sentence to read, for
such a young student. As Peter Baker said, “Old English used in this epic, if not plenty different
from our language used today, it would be from tip to toe opposite.” Reasons such as this are why we
had to omit your work from the tenth grade Literature book.

The second issue we came across was the over obsession of death throughout this epic.
Right from the beginning Shield Sheafson, a great king of the ancient Danes and the founder of their
royal blood line, dies two pages into the text. Next, his son Beow dies directly after him a page
later. Beowulf comes to Denmark and slays Grendal who has been ravaging king Herothgar’s great
mead-hall Heorot, which leads to another fight between Grendal’s mother and Beowulf where Grendal’s
mother gets beheaded. In the last battle of the epic, Beowulf and Wiglaf fight against the fierce
Dragon where both the Dragon and Beowulf perish. In an essay of criticism, Margaret E. Goldsmith
said, “The overpower of death in this epic, restrains the heroism that should be rewarded to the
characters.” A man by the name of Hal Duncan also agrees by stating, “Grendel goes on a
death-murder-killing-spree RAMPAGE, kicking in the doors of Hrothgar's mead hall, bitting off
heads, and chucking bodies aside. This truly is one of the many over-violent sceens in this epic.”
This is one of our strong reason why we had to remove Beowulf from “Prentice Hall Literature,
Timeless Voices, Timeless themes.”

The last issue that helped solidify our decision was that throughout the epic,
there are many instances where you create conflict between Christian and Pagan beliefs. For
example, in the very first chapter we find a line such as, “… and within it, then, to old and young
he would all allot that the Lord had sent him, save only the land and the lives of his men.” This
sentence clearly states the Christian belief that there is a Lord or God. Later on in the story we
come across this line, “No man can tell, no wise man in hall, or weathered veteran, knows for
certain who salvaged that load.” This sentence found within chapter two creates a major conflict.
This sentence poses the question if God really does exist. Later in the second chapter we find yet
another reference to the Christian God, “But well for him that after death-day may draw to his Lord,
and friendship find in the Father's arms!” These three sentences in particular create this
major conflict, and there are surely others throughout the text of the epic. As Jacquie Scott argues
in her literary essay, “Indeed, the time-traversing dialogue between the pagan scop and poet of
Beowulf, which has resulted in the poem we know today, was a successful agent if through it the poet
intended to argue the Christian God’s existence throughout history and, consequently, to downplay
the novelty of Christianity.” She along with Michael Karounos also agreed by his statement, “A
continuous theme throughout the epic was the use of the “Christian God” reference, and soon after
questions of the Pagan belief would be risen. This is a very necessary action that we were forced to
take because of this issue.

On behalf of the entire editing staff for the book, I would like to once again say
we are sorry for the actions forced upon us to make. We also do assure you that your brilliant work
will be published in our book again at a later date, or a higher level of education. I will be sure
to inform you when this date occurs. Before I end this letter, I just want to make myself clear once
again that this event did not occur based on the quality of your work, it was based on the students
abilities to understand it, and the level of appropriateness for the children. We once again are
very sorry for the inconvenience.

The editing staff of Prentice Hall













According to the Oxford English Dictionary, word “golf” comes from the Scottish term, “Golve”
approximately 600 years ago in 1457, and didn’t reach the English dictionaries until 100 years later
around 1549. Its popularity has amplified in recent years with all the new exciting talent entering
the game. It is a game of Britain’s pastime, and will continue to be as centuries pass. For instance
in the London Telegraph, one would find it extremely effortless to find an article on the sport of
Golf. Golf is the fourth listed sport in the Telegraphs sports column(Telegraph C2), and is found in
many headlines in additional papers such as the London Times, and the Mirror. Studying this activity
and its development teaches us about social constructs such as the treatment of woman in sports, and
of how influential the British Isles and England were to the rest of the world for a British
invented game to spread so quickly.

It is definitely true that golf as we know it emerged in Scotland. The Scots were playing golf in
its very simple form back in its early years. It was not until 1774 when the first known Golf rules
were recorded in Edinburgh according to news journalist, Brent Kelly of the London Daily News. With
set rules in place, numerous gifted players began emerging, and setting various of the biggest
traditions we follow in golf to this day. For instance, Walter Hagan became the first man know to
make a living off of playing professional golf tournaments. “Hagan consistently beat the best
professionals of his time, which led to a living off of the sports cash earnings.” said London times
columnist Paul Runyan. Walter Hagan was able to accomplish this by some of the unique traditions
such as tournament opens which the winning competitor receives a major cash prize. For example, the
U.S. Open was established in 1895, and the purse for this tournament is seven million dollars
according to the Professional Golfers Association.

Golf has different levels of play, depending on the players talent and skill. If a player is elite
in this sport he competes at the professional level, but if his skill is not complete, he will find
himself among the amateurs. Brittan, being the inventing Empire of the sport, has produced a great
amount of memorable talent over the centuries such as Harry Vardon. A remarkable player such as
Vardon, had enough talent to win six opens and particularly the first non-American to win a U.S.
Open. “If you run across one man who is making the game look so easy a child could play it, your
quest for Harry Vardon is over” said author Jerry Travers in the famous golfers magazine “The Golf
Digest”. The single aspect that defines a professional from an amateur is that a pro can make
decisions in key situations. For instance, in an interview with Vardon, he stated, “When I came to
the final hole of the 1991 Ryder Cup matches at Valderrama all squared with Scott Hoch, there was no
doubt in my mind about what club I would use from the tee”. British amateur golfer Francis Ouimet
became knows as “The father of amateur golf” to the British people. This 20 year old boy began to
change the history behind Britain’s social construct of only letting the rich and powerful play the
sport. "Ouimet's stunning triumph captured the imagination of sports fan across the globe,
sweeping away the notion that golf was a stuffy game for the old and rich." Said columnist
Miles Kington of the London Mirror. Around this time, we begin to see Britain’s views on who they
allow to play this fabulous sport change.

As time went on, and the popularity of Golf became much larger, authors, playwrights, poets, and
even comedians began to involve the sport in their work. These books can range from expert
techniques, to strategies on veiwing a golf course, and even books such as “Golf for fun” by Horas
Hutchinson. Appearing in poems such as “Golf tees Lament” by Larry Buddin saying things such as
“Golf tees out the backdoor, Like Hansel-and-Gretel trail‘s, Golf tees in the flowerbeds, among the
mulch and snails”, and now a days in movies and plays as well. Golf movies based on British history
or players have come out in the United States such as “The Greatest Game Ever Played” which is based
on a true story of an English amateur golfer by the name of Francis Ouimet. This goes to show us,
that the British sport has influenced America, and we look up to these British athletes. Because of
this, the sport appears frequently in the news, and there are even books written about the sport.
A strong argument that has gone on with the British People, and the rest of the world, was from the
start of the game; women were forbidden to ever play. This is where the morals of the social
constructs of the British society began to be questioned. Many began inquiring how the British
Empire treats their women citizens. The term golf, was then stated to be an acronym for (Gentlemen
Only, Ladies Forbidden) according to British columnist Brent Kelly of the London Daily News. Golf
began to show the world the development of their culture, because in today’s times, there are many
woman playing the sport, and even some in the men’s Golf tournaments. We can see as the nation began
to develop, women were becoming more and more involved which proves that the British Isles‘ social
constructs are developing.

Golf has been around for centuries, and will continue to be a favorite sport of the world. It is a
clean, well-mannered sport, that anyone can love to play. Golf is now also one of the few sports
shown on TV with consistency. Brittan, as the inventers of the sport host the British Open every
year which is a strongly watched event. As time goes on, and the sport continues to develop, more of
England and English literature will also continue to alter.












It would be foolish to say that British Literature can be defined in just one sentence. Hundreds
of years of development and changes have occurred, and each one has played an imperative part in
making British Literature what it is today. As one of the oldest styles of writing, British
Literature has had its fair share of authors over the years. These authors date from as far back as
The Scribe and his epic Beowulf in the early 9th century, to as late as J.K. Rowling and her latest
Harry Potter series. While British poetry usually concerns itself with the inner feelings of the
narrator, prose writers have often focused on the internal and external struggles of a troubled
protagonist. Through this development, five main devices separate world literature, from the unique
style of British Literature. These devices that British Literature depend on are mysterious
settings, the theme of evil, resolutions of deception, characters changing their identities, and the
form of epigrams in couplets.

British Literatures’ authors have been using mysterious settings since the very beginning. This
happens to be one of the major devices, that British authors rely on. John Milton is a strong
example, because the setting in his novel Paradise Lost in the early 1600‘s, presents Satan with
his Angels who have fallen into hell. Milton describes hell as, “…but in a place of utter darkness,
fitliest call‘d chaos.” (12), which shows us that Milton is trying to accomplish an evil, mysterious
setting. Another author that follows this example would be William Shakespeare. In his novel
Macbeth, the setting is truly bloodcurdling as it takes place in an old, dark castle, containing
characters with edgy personalities. We see this in a line spoken by Duncan, “This castle hath an
unpleasant seat; the air thick with stench and death.”( 5: I) Critic George Bernard Shaw completely
disagrees with Shakespeare’s play Macbeth being at all mysterious by stating, “Pure Melodrama. There
is not a touch of characterization that goes below the skin.”(13) A writer that would concur with
Shakespeare is today’s modern British Literature novelist J.K. Rowling. Rowling is known for her
mysterious settings such as Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets. For example, she writes, “The
darkness seemed to be pressing on their eyeballs as they stood, terrified, waiting.”(273) This
explains how the shadows of the forest surroundings begin to mysteriously sneak up on the

Another strong device used by authors in British Literature would the theme of evil. A horrid
past is consistently shown in George Orwell‘s works such as his novel 1984. Orwell writes, “It is
almost terrible to comprehend that such a horrid past can be hidden so easily from the people.”(49)
This quote explains how terrible the past could have been for the people, but Big Brother has hidden
the truth with lies. Milton and Rowling could both agree with this theme because the past is
habitually present in their characters actions. However, the Scribe consistently uses the
characteristic of a cold heart, because all evil characters should never show love. Milton and J.K.
Rowling would disagree completely with this fact because even the most evil of characters have love
for someone or something. It is the evil in their actions that make them who they are. Orwell, on
the other hand, could take the juxtaposition by quouting the Scribes epic Beowulf . “She welcomed
the killer of her son in her claws and clutched at him savagely.”(51) Grendal’s mother was an evil
character in his novel, yet had so much love in her heart for her son. Joy Williams writes, “Evil
stories are stories in which evil reigns, front and center. The protagonists—the main
characters—should be cruel and unsympathetic.” It can be said that a good evil character should be
cold hearted, and usually have a horrid past, but they can also love ones close to them.

In British Literature we are apt to see numerous authors have their characters change or strive to
alter their identities throughout the novel. The shifting of characters’ identities is another
tremendously important device used by British authors. This usually occurs with women characters
beginning to play men’s roles, or even characters changing personality traits. In the play Lady
Macbeth, Shakespeare writes “Come, you spirits that tend on mortal thoughts, unsex me here, and fill
me, from the crown to the toe, top-full of direst cruelty! Make thick my blood.” (1:3; 40-43)
Shakespeare has Lady Macbeth calling evil spirits to change her identity into a man, so she can do
what her husband will not. Critic Samuel Pepys does not agree with this to the smallest degree by
stating, “The most insipid ridiculous play that I ever saw in my life.”(24) Jane Austen and Doris
Lessing could argue with Virginia Woolf and William Shakespeare over the role of women varying their
identities throughout a narrative. Critic Ralf Emerson would not agree to include Austen in this
category as he states “Never was life so pinched and narrow. The problem in the mind of the
writer…is marriageable ness…suicide is more respectable.”(49) Shakespeare believed woman should
make a drastic change such, trying to play a man’s role. Woolf would not find this to be completely
true. Her famous work “The Lady in the Looking Glass” is the complete opposite of Lady Macbeth.
Seeing Isabella Tyson through the looking glass or mirror, you can not see the complexity of her
characteristics; she appears an empty soul. Critic Stephen Howard stated, “..the mirror’s stable,
externally mimetic image denies Isabella a depth of character.”(21) Changing a woman’s identity
throughout the story not only can be having her identity actually change, but by hiding it
throughout the story until it is revealed. Doris Lessing would agree more with Virginia than
Shakespeare. In Lessing’s famous work “No Witchcraft for Sale” Teddy’s personality starts off
unprejudiced against the black cook Gideon, but then begins to have racist feelings towards him. It
takes Gideon to save the boy’s eye sight for Teddy to realize he is a bad person. Lessing’s point
was made that identity can change in all forms, not just the person themselves, or their hidden
identify, but their perspectives on other’s identities.

Countless novels these days have their fairy tale endings, but many British authors such as Sir
Thomas Mallory, and Geoffrey Chaucer, plot their resolutions with deception. Mallory uses the
device of resolution with a strong theme of deception is his famous work Tristram and the Fair
Iseult. This deception will eventually lead to the deaths of both Tristram of Lyonesse and Iseult
the Fair. Iseult of the White Hands deceives Tristram by saying, “Lo now, I see Kurwenal’s ship
sailing heavily through the waves. And the sails are all black..”(11) In reality, Kurwenal’s sails
were all white, but since Tristram didn’t know this, so he ceased to struggle for his life.
Chaucer, on the other hand, uses deception in the resolution of his Canterbury tale story, The
Pardoners Tale. All behind one another’s back, one greedy friend plans to poison his two associates
who prepare to murder him for all the gold. This strong deception will lead to the death of all
three men, “The fell on him and slew him two to one,….And drank and his companion, nothing loth,
Drank from it also, and they perished both.”(22) As everyone had tried to deceive one another, they
only killed themselves. Critic Lord Byron writes, “Chaucer, not withstanding the praises bestowed,
he owes his celebrity merely to his antiquity.”(14) Lord Byron does not agree with Chaucer’s style
of ending his Canterbury Tales stories with deception.

An important form shared between authors such as Geoffrey Chaucer, A.E. Housman, and Master
Anonymous, would be the use of epigrams within couplets. The couplets written by these authors have
epigrams that usually include a universal truth that can be found within the text. A.E. Housman’s
poem “Terence this is Stupid Stuff“, strongly uses the device of an epigram as he wrote, “…Oh I have
been to Ludlow fair/and left my necktie god knows where…”(3) Critic Archie Burnett makes it clear
that he does not like A.E. Housman’s endings by stating, “A.E. Housman poems have a number of the
most mind-numbing endings I will ever read.”(22) Master Anonymous also uses epigrams in his tale
Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. “True men pay what they owe;/ no danger then in sight. /You failed
at the third throw,/ So take my tap, Sir knight.”(175) Master Anonymous uses this epigram to get a
moral across to the reader. If a true man makes a promise, he will keep his word by not cowering
out if he looses. Geoffrey Chaucer wrote his couplets by the epigram form, such as his famous piece
The Nun’s and Priest’s Tale. The main character Chanticleer is about to get eaten by the fox until
the fox is tricked. “Lo, such it is not to be on your guard/against the flatterers of the world, or
yard.”(621-622) The rooster has learned by the end of the story that you cannot trust everything
you hear, or you may end up in trouble one day.

British Literature is known for having its authors to depend on these six devices, and use them to
their benefit. We know this because of how popular these authors work’s are to this day. Written
centuries ago but still being studied in classrooms, proves to us that these six literary devices
work extremely well. Prose and poetry writers do differ in their styles of writing, but the main
idea of these six literary devices are still grounded in both styles of text. Considering these six
devices have grown in popularity over the centuries, it truly would be inappropriate to try and sum
up British Literature in a single sentence.

Chaucer, Geoffrey. The Canterbury Tales. “The Pardoners Tale”. New York, Penguin Books.

Chaucer, Geoffrey. The Canterbury Tales. “The Nun’s and Priest’s Tale”. New York, Penguin Books.

Housman, A.E. “Terence This is Stupid Stuff”. New York, Penguin Books. 1986.3

Henderson, Bill, and Andre Bernard. Rotten Reviews and Rejections. Michigan: Rhetoric, 1998.

Herman, Peter. "The Issue of Paradise Lost." Rev. of Paradise Lost, by John Milton.
Paradise Lost: 12

Kinsella, Kate et al. Prentice Hall Literature: The British Tradition New Jersey : Pearson Prentice
Hall. 2005.

Lessing, Doris “No Witchcraft for Sale”. Prentice Hall: British Tradition. Eds. Kate Kinsella et.
all. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall 2002.

Mallory, Thomas. "King Arthur and His Knights of the Round Table.” Sir Tristram and the Fair

Orwell, George. 1984. New York: Signet Classic, 1949.

Rowling, Joanne K. Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets. New York: Scholastic Press, 1998

Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. New York, Penguin Books. 1974

Woolf, Virginia “The Lady in the Looking Glass: A Reflection”. Prentice Hall: British Tradition.
Eds. Kate Kinsella et. all. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall 2002